Long reserved for aesthetic as well as therapeutic uses, mascara was then a product reserved for more confidential uses before becoming an essential product of any well-managed make-up routine. According to official statistics, it is a market worth two billion euros in the world and nearly 800 million in Europe. It alone represents more than 50% of the eye contour products market and more than 14% of the total make-up market.
The origin of the word is quite complex. According to the site etymology-occitane.fr , mascara would be derived from mask- "Black", a word which is absent from Latin and which, for phonetic and semantic reasons, can be neither Celtic nor Germanic or Arabic. Consequently, a pre-indo-European origin is assumed. The"mask" meaning of masquo would be an Italian loan maschero of the 16th century. The name Mascator is certified in Arles in 520, and still lives in Languedoc : formerly Mascaria, and with a francized spelling Makeup. The root mask- is at the origin of three groups of words with the following meanings : - witch, for example in Alès : masquo" old, ugly and wicked woman; mischievous daughter"; in Auvergne, mask prostitute." Marseille masco death's head butterfly, whose coming is taken in bad omen"..; - blacken with soot , in Old French maschier pretend; hide", in Occitan mascoutá "hide the defect"; • mask, for example mask blush" ; hide kosher" as in Languedoc mascarado disguised and masked troupe of people".
Originally, it was only antimony powder, a black rock with bluish reflections, which, when ground, gives a powder. Today, formulas are increasingly sophisticated and presented with complex technology applicators that are the subject of both ongoing research and an astonishing patent battle.
Finally, he is the subject of many quotations like the one that says: Every woman deserves a man who ruins her lipstick, but not her mascara! that we should at Edith Head, famous costume designer : "Every woman deserve a man who will ruin her lipstick, not her mascara" .
It is thus the history of mascara that we propose to tell you through several contributions which will approach the various aspects of this very particular product.
The following contributions will address the composition of the different families, then the component aspects, inseparable from this family of products. Already online • Automatic mascara: part 1, Water-based • Waterproof mascara • Eye contour make-up removal • The Magic World of Mascara Applicators - Part 1 • The Magic World of Mascara Applicators - Part 2
Contribution made by Jean Claude Le Joliff A biologist by training, Jean Claude Le Joliff was an R&D man for many years. Successively in charge of R&D, then of Research and Innovation in a large French cosmetics and luxury group, and after an experience of creating a research centre (CERIES), he turned to innovation management. He was also Associate Professor at the University of Versailles Saint Quentin (UVSQ) and remains a lecturer in several specialized courses: ISIPCA, IPIL, ITECH, UBS, UCO, SFC, etc. He is the founder of inn2c, an R&D and Innovation consulting company. Consultant for several international companies, he has actively participated in projects such as Filorga, Aïny, Fareva, and many others. He created the Cosmétothèque®, the industry's first conservatory of crafts and know-how.